The Fraunhofer Institute has developed a comprehensive model of copper stocks, flows and recycling rates for the ICA. This complex, three-year study has resulted in a much-improved understanding of how copper is used and reused by society. The full publication “Dynamic Analysis of Global Copper Flows. Global Stocks, Postconsumer Material Flows, Recycling Indicators and Uncertainty Evaluation” contains additional information.
The flow models for the 2018 data year are shown below for regions of interest. For a description of the methodology, view the following publications:
- Dynamic analysis of European copper flows
- The Chinese copper cycle: Tracing copper through the economy with dynamic substance flow and input-output analysis